Groundwater refers to underground water within the first permanent aquifer from the earth's surface that does not have a continuous water-tight seal (unconfined). As a general rule, groundwater has no head and is subject to seasonal level and flow rate fluctuations, while being the fastest-flowing type of underground water.
Groundwater can form significant areas of contamination (relative to the source), actively carry contaminants from the soil layer of the surface, have direct connectivity to surface water bodies, and, under certain hydrogeological conditions, directly affect the quality of water at groundwater intake points.
Groundwater monitoring refers to the special arrangements made to systematically observe a given study target, predict and analyse the course of processes surrounding it, and identify a range of controllable factors to be considered in decision-making.
The hydrogeological situation and changes in it are monitored by observing groundwater conditions in a network of dedicated observation wells.